Agecroft Hall is rich with history and boasts an outstanding collection of objects from the Tudor and early Stuart periods, 1485-1660. The grandest and most impressive object within its collection, however, is the house, itself. Idyllically situated on the banks of the James River, this Tudor manor house is adaptively reconstructed in Richmond in the 1920s using materials from the original Agecroft Hall in Lancashire. Honoring its past, and establishing a sense of authenticity, the modern Agecroft Hall retains many hallmarks of Tudor style architecture such as half-timbering, jetty walls, cross-gabled roofs, massive chimneys and tall, leaded-glass casement windows.
Firmly set upon a massive stone foundation, the house is built using the post-and-beam method. The exterior walls are treated using two of the most recognizable elements of English vernacular architecture: half-timbering and decorative framing. Half-timbering is a building method where the walls are constructed half of timber, English oak in our case, and half plaster (wattle-and-daub), stone or brick. Although Agecroft’s current panels (the spaces between the timbers) closely resemble the original wattle-and-daube, they are now infilled with mortared brick covered with stucco.
During the medieval era, half-timbering framework was really quite simple, with intersecting vertical and horizontal timbers. Over time, framing patterns became more decorative, and close studding (closely spaced upright timbers with plaster panels in between), diagonal, and arched designs began to appear. A sign of prosperity and status, this form of building was most often used by gentry and farmers since this style required costly timber and the labor of experienced carpenters
Oftentimes, half-timbering is referenced as ‘black and white’ or ‘magpie’ (as in, the black-billed magpie bird).This reference earned its name from the early technique of tarring timbers and whitewashing panels. Today, this aesthetic is achieved by using black and white paint.
As the timber framework became more elaborate, so too did the treatment of the panels in between. Reaching the height of its popularity in Elizabethan times, decorative patterning, ranging from simple herringbone to more complex fleur-de-lis motifs, enriched a building’s façade. While this type of ornamentation mostly appeared in the western regions of England, the Lancashire gentry used this embellishment to its most magnificent effects. Strategically placed to delight and impress its visitors upon approach, Agecroft’s north elevation offers a rich representation of this design element.
Another architectural symbol of wealth and status is the use of jettied walls—an upper wall that projects beyond the wall below. Primarily located on the side most visible to the public, wealthier patrons would incorporate this wall treatment to multiple elevations, as is the case at Agecroft Hall. Used to shelter the lower walls from the weather, Agecroft’s jetties are embellished with coving, a concave plaster treatment beneath each overhang, which is an architectural feature distinctive to Lancashire.
In keeping with the trademarks of Tudor architectural design, Agecroft’s façade is dominated by steeply pitched roofs, multiple, forward-facing cross-gables and varied eave-line heights. The roof is capped with split sandstone. Nearly all original, these sandstone pieces are as large as two feet long and one inch thick; a 10-by-10 foot section of roof weighs approximately one ton.
Offering one of the finest examples of Tudor inspired houses in America, Agecroft Hall’s architectural richness is truly a tribute to its English past. If you enjoyed this article and would like to learn more on Agecroft Hall’s most prominent architectural features, please visit Ask the Past next month as we discuss chimneys, windows and doors!
For further reading on Tudor style architecture, please check out these books:
Clifton-Taylor, Alec. The Pattern of English Building. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1962.
Harris, Richard. Discovering Timber-Framed Buildings. Buckinghamshire, UK: Shire Publications, Ltd., 1978.
McAlester, Virginia & Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 2003.